Black Abolitionist Movement versus the NAM during the Cold War

Black Abolitionist Movement versus the NAM during the Cold War

Introduction

The Abolitionist Movement played a crucial role in the eradication of slavery in Britain and the New World (America). Even though in the 19th century the movement was spearheaded by whites, particularly church leaders, it is the black community in slavery that fueled the first abolitionist movement (Harrold 1). The main goal of the abolitionist movement was to stop the trans-Atlantic slave trade, where millions of Africans were shipped to America and to serve as laborers in vast plantations, which served as the main source of inputs for Western powers (Zinn 319). The historical root of the anti-slavery movement was the black resistance to slavery. Black resistance began in the last three decades of the 15th century, where Africans slaves started to kill themselves and the enslavers (Europeans). The French and American Revolution in the 17th century had created a path for the new ideas of human rights and liberty, and black slaves sought to use this opportunity to regain their political and economic freedom (retrieved from.  The decision to join the Non-aligned movement also forms a point in history when blacks opted to challenge the Western powers containment policies. This paper will explore the two periods in history, a time when the blacks challenged the Western powers foreign policies.

Maroon age (1750-1800)

Even though many black slaves waged sporadic attack against their master, no meaningful progress was attained before the end of the 18th century. The beginning of the 19th century ushered a new era, two similar but distinct events that took places in the last quarter of the 18th century transformed the political mind of slaves in Britain and America (Harrold 1). Black resistance towards the oppressive western powers policies of slavery took the form of revolts and sporadic uprisings. In these rebellions many black slaves did not seek to change the political framework that permitted slavery, a key feature of the Non-aligned era, rather blacks tried to emancipate themselves by escaping. In some places such as the Latin America and the New Indies, black slaves who managed to escape formed maroon communities (Robinson 169)

A majority of black slaves had already recognized the futility of seeking freedom and equal political rights. In this light, many slaves who managed to escape from the Western master Maroon communities were mainly situated in areas that were not easily accessible, to ensure that the white master did not recapture them (Harrold 1). Black slaves in these settlements also made concerted efforts to fortify them as much as was practically possible. Such settlements were common phenomena in the New World and Latin American in the last quarter of the 18th century and decades into the 19th century (Robinson 170). The maroon communities did not only serve as a safe haven for the slaves that managed to escape but also as bases for attacking the white master. In fact, it is stated that the constant attacks of whites by black in maroon settlements were one of the key element that encouraged anti-slavery feelings among the white. Many whites fell victim to the massive ambush and raids by slaves in maroon communities, and the inability of the authorities in the United States to recapture the escaped black slaves made the white community disturbingly conscious of the plights of the blacks in New World and their susceptibility in a slave society.

It is important to note that majority of the white slave owner in the United States and Latin America were of British origin. Before American attained her independence the policy used in the New World and all the other colonial territories of Great Britain, were engineered in Britain. The attacks from the Maroon communities sought to challenge Britain to reconsider its position on the way that they treated blacks (Robinson 171). Nonetheless, the main goal for the Maroon attacks and activities were the emancipation of their fellow blacks in America and other parts of the globe. Britain and later the administration in America became conscious of the inherent cruelty of slave trade and slavery because blacks in the Maroon communities were ready and willing to take severe punishment and risk their lives for the sake of their fellow brother and sisters working for white masters.

Slavery is one of the key political policy pursued by the West in the 18th Century that united all Africans in diaspora and within the African continent. Many historian and sociologists have constantly indicated that I black slaves who managed to escape in maroon communities submitted timidly to the white master, slavery and slave trade would not have been viewed as evil and domineering (Robinson 169). One of the main leader of the slave rebellion was Francois Dominique, who, in 1791was able to organize and execute a rebellion that shook the colonial master (Harrold 1). In the rebellion of 1791 in the French colony of Saint-Domingue (Haiti), black rebels were able to overthrow the colonial masters and their masters, an event that brought slavery in that colony to an end. In fact in 1804, Haiti would become the very first independent black republic in the globe (Harrold 1). The rebellion frightened white not only in Ame

Black Abolitionist Movement versus the NAM during the Cold War

Introduction

The Abolitionist Movement played a crucial role in the eradication of slavery in Britain and the New World (America). Even though in the 19th century the movement was spearheaded by whites, particularly church leaders, it is the black community in slavery that fueled the first abolitionist movement (Harrold 1). The main goal of the abolitionist movement was to stop the trans-Atlantic slave trade, where millions of Africans were shipped to America and to serve as laborers in vast plantations, which served as the main source of inputs for Western powers (Zinn 319). The historical root of the anti-slavery movement was the black resistance to slavery. Black resistance began in the last three decades of the 15th century, where Africans slaves started to kill themselves and the enslavers (Europeans). The French and American Revolution in the 17th century had created a path for the new ideas of human rights and liberty, and black slaves sought to use this opportunity to regain their political and economic freedom (retrieved from http://topwritingreviews.com/our_mission).  The decision to join the Non-aligned movement also forms a point in history when blacks opted to challenge the Western powers containment policies. This paper will explore the two periods in history, a time when the blacks challenged the Western powers foreign policies.

Maroon age (1750-1800)

Even though many black slaves waged sporadic attack against their master, no meaningful progress was attained before the end of the 18th century. The beginning of the 19th century ushered a new era, two similar but distinct events that took places in the last quarter of the 18th century transformed the political mind of slaves in Britain and America (Harrold 1). Black resistance towards the oppressive western powers policies of slavery took the form of revolts and sporadic uprisings. In these rebellions many black slaves did not seek to change the political framework that permitted slavery, a key feature of the Non-aligned era, rather blacks tried to emancipate themselves by escaping. In some places such as the Latin America and the New Indies, black slaves who managed to escape formed maroon communities (Robinson 169)

A majority of black slaves had already recognized the futility of seeking freedom and equal political rights. In this light, many slaves who managed to escape from the Western master Maroon communities were mainly situated in areas that were not easily accessible, to ensure that the white master did not recapture them (Harrold 1). Black slaves in these settlements also made concerted efforts to fortify them as much as was practically possible. Such settlements were common phenomena in the New World and Latin American in the last quarter of the 18th century and decades into the 19th century (Robinson 170). The maroon communities did not only serve as a safe haven for the slaves that managed to escape but also as bases for attacking the white master. In fact, it is stated that the constant attacks of whites by black in maroon settlements were one of the key element that encouraged anti-slavery feelings among the white. Many whites fell victim to the massive ambush and raids by slaves in maroon communities, and the inability of the authorities in the United States to recapture the escaped black slaves made the white community disturbingly conscious of the plights of the blacks in New World and their susceptibility in a slave society.

It is important to note that majority of the white slave owner in the United States and Latin America were of British origin. Before American attained her independence the policy used in the New World and all the other colonial territories of Great Britain, were engineered in Britain. The attacks from the Maroon communities sought to challenge Britain to reconsider its position on the way that they treated blacks (Robinson 171). Nonetheless, the main goal for the Maroon attacks and activities were the emancipation of their fellow blacks in America and other parts of the globe. Britain and later the administration in America became conscious of the inherent cruelty of slave trade and slavery because blacks in the Maroon communities were ready and willing to take severe punishment and risk their lives for the sake of their fellow brother and sisters working for white masters.

Slavery is one of the key political policy pursued by the West in the 18th Century that united all Africans in diaspora and within the African continent. Many historian and sociologists have constantly indicated that I black slaves who managed to escape in maroon communities submitted timidly to the white master, slavery and slave trade would not have been viewed as evil and domineering (Robinson 169). One of the main leader of the slave rebellion was Francois Dominique, who, in 1791was able to organize and execute a rebellion that shook the colonial master (Harrold 1). In the rebellion of 1791 in the French colony of Saint-Domingue (Haiti), black rebels were able to overthrow the colonial masters and their masters, an event that brought slavery in that colony to an end. In fact in 1804, Haiti would become the very first independent black republic in the globe (Harrold 1). The rebellion frightened white not only in America but also in Europe. It also served as an inspiration to the millions of slaves in America and black action, phenomena that convinced many Britain, the USA and other western powers that only peaceful emancipation could avert more bloodshed from both sides. Black abolitionists such as Harriet Tubman also contributed immensely in helping slave escape from slavery to black settlements (Robinson 169).

Non-Aligned Movement during the Cold War (1960-1990)

After the end of the Second World War, the United States and U.S.S.R emerged as the global powers. The collapse of Germany and the destruction of other European nations by Hitler Forces had created a bipolar world (Okoth22). On one hand was the United States, a capitalists nation that held dear the principles of democracy and human rights. On the other hand, the USSR, a communist nation that striving to build nd spread communist ideology (Okoth 44). The newly independent African state were deeply interested preserving the newly acquired political freedom and independence. Many nations in the Africa were also concerned by the plights of other Africans in countries such as South Africa and Zimbabwe (Aggarwal 1).

The containment policy adopted by the United States and her allies such as Britan and France required blacks in the United States and in Africa to align themselves on the side of the United States (Okoth 44). USA and a majority of the European powers were pursuing a policy that dictated that, ” if you are not with us, you are against us.” But the cold war in the eyes of the black people in the America, Europe, and Africa was a “coded race war” (Normand &Zaidi 162). It was mainly about the black people being subject to the USA and USSR ideological debacles. Even though there was no direct confrontation, the the developing nations, including Africa, were converted to proxy battlefield by both powers (Okoth 44). And even though many countries were part of the non-aligned movement, blacks in America and Africa lambasted USA for racial discrimination of black community in the USA (Robinson 169). The unification of all African states and black communities in all parts of the word against racist propagated by the USA in America and European powers in colonies such as South Africa and Zimbabwe coerced the USA to make concessions with civil rights groups and formulate laws abandoning racist (Hudson 1). The Black community in the United States in America and Africa would be required to support the USA for its anti-communist efforts. But USA foreign policy faced a major blow when independent Africa states led by Ghana first black president Kwame Nkrumah opted to form the Non-aligned movement that had been formed in 1954 (Aggarwal 1). Black leaders of newly independent states stated that the containment foreign policy adopted by the USA, would not only threaten the independent of their states but would also draw blacks into a war that they could not help solve or fight. Non-aligned state principles guideline did not allow alignment with any power (Normand &Zaidi 162).

Conclusion

The Maroon age (black abolitionist activities between 1750-1800), and the period between 1960-90 have two similar features. First, it is the determination of black people to free from the oppression of white domination that prompted their opposition to the discriminatory and domineering policies adopted by Western powers. In both periods, there were developments in the global realm that changed the perceptions and political view of the Western powers .During the black abolitionist movement of 1750-1800, the Americana and French revolution played a crucial role in increased the determination among the enslaved blacks to fight for freedom. In the same vein, between 1960-90 the cold war played a crucial role in pushing the USA and her allies in Europe to carry out legislation that eliminated racism.

The black abolitionist period (1750-1800) was marked by massive resistance of blacks to discriminatory policies adopted by Western powers in colonial territories. The goal of the black abolitionist movement in the 18th century was not the removal of discriminatory laws that would free all black people, but freedom of all black under the yolk of slavery. The Maroon settlements played a key role in waging attacks and uprisings that convinced many of the white masters that a peaceful path to freedom was the best option. On the hand, the period between 1960-90 marked a phase when blacks opted to defy the Western powers in the war against communism. Blacks used the communism agenda to push the USA and other Western powers to abandon racism and colonialism. At this era blacks used diplomacy to address social problems facing blacks in various parts of the world.

rica but also in Europe. It also served as an inspiration to the millions of slaves in America and black action, phenomena that convinced many Britain, the USA and other western powers that only peaceful emancipation could avert more bloodshed from both sides. Black abolitionists such as Harriet Tubman also contributed immensely in helping slave escape from slavery to black settlements (Robinson 169).

Non-Aligned Movement during the Cold War (1960-1990)

After the end of the Second World War, the United States and U.S.S.R emerged as the global powers. The collapse of Germany and the destruction of other European nations by Hitler Forces had created a bipolar world (Okoth22). On one hand was the United States, a capitalists nation that held dear the principles of democracy and human rights. On the other hand, the USSR, a communist nation that striving to build nd spread communist ideology (Okoth 44). The newly independent African state were deeply interested preserving the newly acquired political freedom and independence. Many nations in the Africa were also concerned by the plights of other Africans in countries such as South Africa and Zimbabwe (Aggarwal 1).

The containment policy adopted by the United States and her allies such as Britan and France required blacks in the United States and in Africa to align themselves on the side of the United States (Okoth 44). USA and a majority of the European powers were pursuing a policy that dictated that, ” if you are not with us, you are against us.” But the cold war in the eyes of the black people in the America, Europe, and Africa was a “coded race war” (Normand &Zaidi 162). It was mainly about the black people being subject to the USA and USSR ideological debacles. Even though there was no direct confrontation, the the developing nations, including Africa, were converted to proxy battlefield by both powers (Okoth 44). And even though many countries were part of the non-aligned movement, blacks in America and Africa lambasted USA for racial discrimination of black community in the USA (Robinson 169). The unification of all African states and black communities in all parts of the word against racist propagated by the USA in America and European powers in colonies such as South Africa and Zimbabwe coerced the USA to make concessions with civil rights groups and formulate laws abandoning racist (Hudson 1). The Black community in the United States in America and Africa would be required to support the USA for its anti-communist efforts. But USA foreign policy faced a major blow when independent Africa states led by Ghana first black president Kwame Nkrumah opted to form the Non-aligned movement that had been formed in 1954 (Aggarwal 1). Black leaders of newly independent states stated that the containment foreign policy adopted by the USA, would not only threaten the independent of their states but would also draw blacks into a war that they could not help solve or fight. Non-aligned state principles guideline did not allow alignment with any power (Normand &Zaidi 162).

Conclusion

The Maroon age (black abolitionist activities between 1750-1800), and the period between 1960-90 have two similar features. First, it is the determination of black people to free from the oppression of white domination that prompted their opposition to the discriminatory and domineering policies adopted by Western powers. In both periods, there were developments in the global realm that changed the perceptions and political view of the Western powers .During the black abolitionist movement of 1750-1800, the Americana and French revolution played a crucial role in increased the determination among the enslaved blacks to fight for freedom. In the same vein, between 1960-90 the cold war played a crucial role in pushing the USA and her allies in Europe to carry out legislation that eliminated racism.

The black abolitionist period (1750-1800) was marked by massive resistance of blacks to discriminatory policies adopted by Western powers in colonial territories. The goal of the black abolitionist movement in the 18th century was not the removal of discriminatory laws that would free all black people, but freedom of all black under the yolk of slavery. The Maroon settlements played a key role in waging attacks and uprisings that convinced many of the white masters that a peaceful path to freedom was the best option. On the hand, the period between 1960-90 marked a phase when blacks opted to defy the Western powers in the war against communism. Blacks used the communism agenda to push the USA and other Western powers to abandon racism and colonialism. At this era blacks used diplomacy to address social problems facing blacks in various parts of the world.