Black Abolitionist Movement versus the NAM during the Cold War

Black Abolitionist Movement versus the NAM during the Cold War

Introduction

The Abolitionist Movement played a crucial role in the eradication of slavery in Britain and the New World (America). Even though in the 19th century the movement was spearheaded by whites, particularly church leaders, it is the black community in slavery that fueled the first abolitionist movement (Harrold 1). The main goal of the abolitionist movement was to stop the trans-Atlantic slave trade, where millions of Africans were shipped to America and to serve as laborers in vast plantations, which served as the main source of inputs for Western powers (Zinn 319). The historical root of the anti-slavery movement was the black resistance to slavery. Black resistance began in the last three decades of the 15th century, where Africans slaves started to kill themselves and the enslavers (Europeans). The French and American Revolution in the 17th century had created a path for the new ideas of human rights and liberty, and black slaves sought to use this opportunity to regain their political and economic freedom (retrieved from.  The decision to join the Non-aligned movement also forms a point in history when blacks opted to challenge the Western powers containment policies. This paper will explore the two periods in history, a time when the blacks challenged the Western powers foreign policies.

Maroon age (1750-1800)

Even though many black slaves waged sporadic attack against their master, no meaningful progress was attained before the end of the 18th century. The beginning of the 19th century ushered a new era, two similar but distinct events that took places in the last quarter of the 18th century transformed the political mind of slaves in Britain and America (Harrold 1). Black resistance towards the oppressive western powers policies of slavery took the form of revolts and sporadic uprisings. In these rebellions many black slaves did not seek to change the political framework that permitted slavery, a key feature of the Non-aligned era, rather blacks tried to emancipate themselves by escaping. In some places such as the Latin America and the New Indies, black slaves who managed to escape formed maroon communities (Robinson 169)

A majority of black slaves had already recognized the futility of seeking freedom and equal political rights. In this light, many slaves who managed to escape from the Western master Maroon communities were mainly situated in areas that were not easily accessible, to ensure that the white master did not recapture them (Harrold 1). Black slaves in these settlements also made concerted efforts to fortify them as much as was practically possible. Such settlements were common phenomena in the New World and Latin American in the last quarter of the 18th century and decades into the 19th century (Robinson 170). The maroon communities did not only serve as a safe haven for the slaves that managed to escape but also as bases for attacking the white master. In fact, it is stated that the constant attacks of whites by black in maroon settlements were one of the key element that encouraged anti-slavery feelings among the white. Many whites fell victim to the massive ambush and raids by slaves in maroon communities, and the inability of the authorities in the United States to recapture the escaped black slaves made the white community disturbingly conscious of the plights of the blacks in New World and their susceptibility in a slave society.

It is important to note that majority of the white slave owner in the United States and Latin America were of British origin. Before American attained her independence the policy used in the New World and all the other colonial territories of Great Britain, were engineered in Britain. The attacks from the Maroon communities sought to challenge Britain to reconsider its position on the way that they treated blacks (Robinson 171). Nonetheless, the main goal for the Maroon attacks and activities were the emancipation of their fellow blacks in America and other parts of the globe. Britain and later the administration in America became conscious of the inherent cruelty of slave trade and slavery because blacks in the Maroon communities were ready and willing to take severe punishment and risk their lives for the sake of their fellow brother and sisters working for white masters.

Slavery is one of the key political policy pursued by the West in the 18th Century that united all Africans in diaspora and within the African continent. Many historian and sociologists have constantly indicated that I black slaves who managed to escape in maroon communities submitted timidly to the white master, slavery and slave trade would not have been viewed as evil and domineering (Robinson 169). One of the main leader of the slave rebellion was Francois Dominique, who, in 1791was able to organize and execute a rebellion that shook the colonial master (Harrold 1). In the rebellion of 1791 in the French colony of Saint-Domingue (Haiti), black rebels were able to overthrow the colonial masters and their masters, an event that brought slavery in that colony to an end. In fact in 1804, Haiti would become the very first independent black republic in the globe (Harrold 1). The rebellion frightened white not only in Ame

Black Abolitionist Movement versus the NAM during the Cold War

Introduction

The Abolitionist Movement played a crucial role in the eradication of slavery in Britain and the New World (America). Even though in the 19th century the movement was spearheaded by whites, particularly church leaders, it is the black community in slavery that fueled the first abolitionist movement (Harrold 1). The main goal of the abolitionist movement was to stop the trans-Atlantic slave trade, where millions of Africans were shipped to America and to serve as laborers in vast plantations, which served as the main source of inputs for Western powers (Zinn 319). The historical root of the anti-slavery movement was the black resistance to slavery. Black resistance began in the last three decades of the 15th century, where Africans slaves started to kill themselves and the enslavers (Europeans). The French and American Revolution in the 17th century had created a path for the new ideas of human rights and liberty, and black slaves sought to use this opportunity to regain their political and economic freedom (retrieved from http://topwritingreviews.com/our_mission).  The decision to join the Non-aligned movement also forms a point in history when blacks opted to challenge the Western powers containment policies. This paper will explore the two periods in history, a time when the blacks challenged the Western powers foreign policies.

Maroon age (1750-1800)

Even though many black slaves waged sporadic attack against their master, no meaningful progress was attained before the end of the 18th century. The beginning of the 19th century ushered a new era, two similar but distinct events that took places in the last quarter of the 18th century transformed the political mind of slaves in Britain and America (Harrold 1). Black resistance towards the oppressive western powers policies of slavery took the form of revolts and sporadic uprisings. In these rebellions many black slaves did not seek to change the political framework that permitted slavery, a key feature of the Non-aligned era, rather blacks tried to emancipate themselves by escaping. In some places such as the Latin America and the New Indies, black slaves who managed to escape formed maroon communities (Robinson 169)

A majority of black slaves had already recognized the futility of seeking freedom and equal political rights. In this light, many slaves who managed to escape from the Western master Maroon communities were mainly situated in areas that were not easily accessible, to ensure that the white master did not recapture them (Harrold 1). Black slaves in these settlements also made concerted efforts to fortify them as much as was practically possible. Such settlements were common phenomena in the New World and Latin American in the last quarter of the 18th century and decades into the 19th century (Robinson 170). The maroon communities did not only serve as a safe haven for the slaves that managed to escape but also as bases for attacking the white master. In fact, it is stated that the constant attacks of whites by black in maroon settlements were one of the key element that encouraged anti-slavery feelings among the white. Many whites fell victim to the massive ambush and raids by slaves in maroon communities, and the inability of the authorities in the United States to recapture the escaped black slaves made the white community disturbingly conscious of the plights of the blacks in New World and their susceptibility in a slave society.

It is important to note that majority of the white slave owner in the United States and Latin America were of British origin. Before American attained her independence the policy used in the New World and all the other colonial territories of Great Britain, were engineered in Britain. The attacks from the Maroon communities sought to challenge Britain to reconsider its position on the way that they treated blacks (Robinson 171). Nonetheless, the main goal for the Maroon attacks and activities were the emancipation of their fellow blacks in America and other parts of the globe. Britain and later the administration in America became conscious of the inherent cruelty of slave trade and slavery because blacks in the Maroon communities were ready and willing to take severe punishment and risk their lives for the sake of their fellow brother and sisters working for white masters.

Slavery is one of the key political policy pursued by the West in the 18th Century that united all Africans in diaspora and within the African continent. Many historian and sociologists have constantly indicated that I black slaves who managed to escape in maroon communities submitted timidly to the white master, slavery and slave trade would not have been viewed as evil and domineering (Robinson 169). One of the main leader of the slave rebellion was Francois Dominique, who, in 1791was able to organize and execute a rebellion that shook the colonial master (Harrold 1). In the rebellion of 1791 in the French colony of Saint-Domingue (Haiti), black rebels were able to overthrow the colonial masters and their masters, an event that brought slavery in that colony to an end. In fact in 1804, Haiti would become the very first independent black republic in the globe (Harrold 1). The rebellion frightened white not only in America but also in Europe. It also served as an inspiration to the millions of slaves in America and black action, phenomena that convinced many Britain, the USA and other western powers that only peaceful emancipation could avert more bloodshed from both sides. Black abolitionists such as Harriet Tubman also contributed immensely in helping slave escape from slavery to black settlements (Robinson 169).

Non-Aligned Movement during the Cold War (1960-1990)

After the end of the Second World War, the United States and U.S.S.R emerged as the global powers. The collapse of Germany and the destruction of other European nations by Hitler Forces had created a bipolar world (Okoth22). On one hand was the United States, a capitalists nation that held dear the principles of democracy and human rights. On the other hand, the USSR, a communist nation that striving to build nd spread communist ideology (Okoth 44). The newly independent African state were deeply interested preserving the newly acquired political freedom and independence. Many nations in the Africa were also concerned by the plights of other Africans in countries such as South Africa and Zimbabwe (Aggarwal 1).

The containment policy adopted by the United States and her allies such as Britan and France required blacks in the United States and in Africa to align themselves on the side of the United States (Okoth 44). USA and a majority of the European powers were pursuing a policy that dictated that, ” if you are not with us, you are against us.” But the cold war in the eyes of the black people in the America, Europe, and Africa was a “coded race war” (Normand &Zaidi 162). It was mainly about the black people being subject to the USA and USSR ideological debacles. Even though there was no direct confrontation, the the developing nations, including Africa, were converted to proxy battlefield by both powers (Okoth 44). And even though many countries were part of the non-aligned movement, blacks in America and Africa lambasted USA for racial discrimination of black community in the USA (Robinson 169). The unification of all African states and black communities in all parts of the word against racist propagated by the USA in America and European powers in colonies such as South Africa and Zimbabwe coerced the USA to make concessions with civil rights groups and formulate laws abandoning racist (Hudson 1). The Black community in the United States in America and Africa would be required to support the USA for its anti-communist efforts. But USA foreign policy faced a major blow when independent Africa states led by Ghana first black president Kwame Nkrumah opted to form the Non-aligned movement that had been formed in 1954 (Aggarwal 1). Black leaders of newly independent states stated that the containment foreign policy adopted by the USA, would not only threaten the independent of their states but would also draw blacks into a war that they could not help solve or fight. Non-aligned state principles guideline did not allow alignment with any power (Normand &Zaidi 162).

Conclusion

The Maroon age (black abolitionist activities between 1750-1800), and the period between 1960-90 have two similar features. First, it is the determination of black people to free from the oppression of white domination that prompted their opposition to the discriminatory and domineering policies adopted by Western powers. In both periods, there were developments in the global realm that changed the perceptions and political view of the Western powers .During the black abolitionist movement of 1750-1800, the Americana and French revolution played a crucial role in increased the determination among the enslaved blacks to fight for freedom. In the same vein, between 1960-90 the cold war played a crucial role in pushing the USA and her allies in Europe to carry out legislation that eliminated racism.

The black abolitionist period (1750-1800) was marked by massive resistance of blacks to discriminatory policies adopted by Western powers in colonial territories. The goal of the black abolitionist movement in the 18th century was not the removal of discriminatory laws that would free all black people, but freedom of all black under the yolk of slavery. The Maroon settlements played a key role in waging attacks and uprisings that convinced many of the white masters that a peaceful path to freedom was the best option. On the hand, the period between 1960-90 marked a phase when blacks opted to defy the Western powers in the war against communism. Blacks used the communism agenda to push the USA and other Western powers to abandon racism and colonialism. At this era blacks used diplomacy to address social problems facing blacks in various parts of the world.

rica but also in Europe. It also served as an inspiration to the millions of slaves in America and black action, phenomena that convinced many Britain, the USA and other western powers that only peaceful emancipation could avert more bloodshed from both sides. Black abolitionists such as Harriet Tubman also contributed immensely in helping slave escape from slavery to black settlements (Robinson 169).

Non-Aligned Movement during the Cold War (1960-1990)

After the end of the Second World War, the United States and U.S.S.R emerged as the global powers. The collapse of Germany and the destruction of other European nations by Hitler Forces had created a bipolar world (Okoth22). On one hand was the United States, a capitalists nation that held dear the principles of democracy and human rights. On the other hand, the USSR, a communist nation that striving to build nd spread communist ideology (Okoth 44). The newly independent African state were deeply interested preserving the newly acquired political freedom and independence. Many nations in the Africa were also concerned by the plights of other Africans in countries such as South Africa and Zimbabwe (Aggarwal 1).

The containment policy adopted by the United States and her allies such as Britan and France required blacks in the United States and in Africa to align themselves on the side of the United States (Okoth 44). USA and a majority of the European powers were pursuing a policy that dictated that, ” if you are not with us, you are against us.” But the cold war in the eyes of the black people in the America, Europe, and Africa was a “coded race war” (Normand &Zaidi 162). It was mainly about the black people being subject to the USA and USSR ideological debacles. Even though there was no direct confrontation, the the developing nations, including Africa, were converted to proxy battlefield by both powers (Okoth 44). And even though many countries were part of the non-aligned movement, blacks in America and Africa lambasted USA for racial discrimination of black community in the USA (Robinson 169). The unification of all African states and black communities in all parts of the word against racist propagated by the USA in America and European powers in colonies such as South Africa and Zimbabwe coerced the USA to make concessions with civil rights groups and formulate laws abandoning racist (Hudson 1). The Black community in the United States in America and Africa would be required to support the USA for its anti-communist efforts. But USA foreign policy faced a major blow when independent Africa states led by Ghana first black president Kwame Nkrumah opted to form the Non-aligned movement that had been formed in 1954 (Aggarwal 1). Black leaders of newly independent states stated that the containment foreign policy adopted by the USA, would not only threaten the independent of their states but would also draw blacks into a war that they could not help solve or fight. Non-aligned state principles guideline did not allow alignment with any power (Normand &Zaidi 162).

Conclusion

The Maroon age (black abolitionist activities between 1750-1800), and the period between 1960-90 have two similar features. First, it is the determination of black people to free from the oppression of white domination that prompted their opposition to the discriminatory and domineering policies adopted by Western powers. In both periods, there were developments in the global realm that changed the perceptions and political view of the Western powers .During the black abolitionist movement of 1750-1800, the Americana and French revolution played a crucial role in increased the determination among the enslaved blacks to fight for freedom. In the same vein, between 1960-90 the cold war played a crucial role in pushing the USA and her allies in Europe to carry out legislation that eliminated racism.

The black abolitionist period (1750-1800) was marked by massive resistance of blacks to discriminatory policies adopted by Western powers in colonial territories. The goal of the black abolitionist movement in the 18th century was not the removal of discriminatory laws that would free all black people, but freedom of all black under the yolk of slavery. The Maroon settlements played a key role in waging attacks and uprisings that convinced many of the white masters that a peaceful path to freedom was the best option. On the hand, the period between 1960-90 marked a phase when blacks opted to defy the Western powers in the war against communism. Blacks used the communism agenda to push the USA and other Western powers to abandon racism and colonialism. At this era blacks used diplomacy to address social problems facing blacks in various parts of the world.

Reconciling weak constitutional review and democratic principles

Reconciling weak constitutional review and democratic principle

I believe that a weak form of constitutional review where the unelected judges have no final say could be reconciled with the fundamental principles of democracy. The purposes of this paper will be to support the above-stated fact. Many countries have a written constitution that acts as the supreme law of the land. This means that any other law that is inconsistent with the constitution is considered null and void. The constitution of any country is usually enforced by the legislature. These are elected representatives of the people elected through the voting process. Democracy has always been about involved every member of a given society or country in decision making. It gives each and every one say on national matters which is projected in their power to vote for representatives to represent them. Every citizen of any democratic country has been vested with the power to one vote. 

Constitutional review is also known as judicial review in the U.S. This performs the action of giving no legal effect in any case that is found to be inconsistent with constitutional norms. This is usually the case in the operation of the rule of stare decisis under the US law. When a higher court upholds this decision, any other subordinate court under it must also uphold the same decision. The power to judicially review any judgments taken is a superior power that is vested in the Supreme Court to review the action of the government for consistency with the Constitution. Judicial review is meant to act as an independent oversight to ensure that the democratic principle are respected and protected.

Judicial review, the one that is presented by academic writers through  has always been attacked as far as involvement democratic rights are concerned. This is because a few unelected individuals are vested with the power of majority voting. This act in itself excludes the common citizens and ignores the democratic principles of representation and political equivalence. The power vested in the judiciary to overrule the legislature are contradictory to the principles of democracy. The systematic framework of giving each and every citizen one vote, promote equality and democracy. This provides each nation with enough political resources for promoting a balance of power that encourages each side of parliament to promote compromise. Each and every single member of the society no matter how small they are is vested with the power to vote by the constitution. Through the application of this understanding, them we can assume that the democratic process is the constitution.

On the other hand, each and every oversight body has some role to play in upholding the basic principles of democracy. Individuals who support this opinion regularly contend that judicial review is an essential process because it enriches safeguarding against the oppression of the masses. These individuals purport that it is not the work of the judges to check the people, but the constitutions work. The Constitution itself has also been popularly sanctioned which ensures that there is nothing undemocratic in the power vested in the judicial review. For this reason alone, there have been many controversies surrounding whether judicial review can be reconciled with the principles of democracy. The question on whether judicial review is compatible with a democratic government has often arisen.

In the case where the judiciary acts as an independent body but has no final say in the matter I believe the two can be reconciled. The only problem that would arise is that the judiciary, in this case, would be subject to neglect since they have no final say. This would mean that any input forwarded from the judicial review could be ignored by the legislature. But in a case where the judiciary review’s input is put into consideration, the two can be reconciled. This is the case because, the will be vested with the role of an independent oversight. For every action that will be taken that is not consistent with the constitution, they will be able to protect the citizens from majoritarian control. The purpose of the judiciary to be independent is to protect it from any political influence that would influence the decisions they make.

The purposes of this paper have been to contend the reconciliation of democratic principles against the constitutional review. Each and every oversight body, the judiciary or the legislature, has its power and mandate. To understand why there has been conflicting, we are going to look at it from two angles. First is the substantive view and later the procedural view. The substantive view upholds that it is extremely difficult to resolve whether or not the judiciary is superior to the legislature at protecting the people’s rights. This is the case because the evidence available on this matter is totally inconclusive. The constitution of say U.S does not rank which body is supreme over the other. Each of them is classified under the arms of the government without which the government cannot function properly. Many theorists have tried to rank the two in terms of the powers vested in them which should not be the case. The two bodies should complement each other to ensure an efficient democratic government. The only way we can be able to reconcile the two is if we can look at them from the complementary perspective.

On the procedural view, the legislature of a country is usually taken to be more superior to the judiciary. This is usually the case because the legislature is more legitimate and participate more in the embodiment of crucial democratic rights and principles than the judiciary could. In most of the enactments of the constitution, the legislature is more actively involved. It duty is also to make laws and change them where and when it is necessary. Hence when it is argued from this perspective, the legislature has been providing with more mandate than the judiciary. In reality this is true, the judiciary was meant to enforce and protect the law. Without one, the other cannot be able to function properly.

In some case, judicial review is necessary. This is so when it seeks to preserve fundamental democratic rights from majoritarian judgment. Judicial review is becoming a popular choice across many nations of promoting non-majoritarian representative democracy. It is argued that the aim of having a judicial review framework is to promote democratic results while at the same time preserving popular participation in democratic processes. This is usually supported if the judges have been elected by elected representatives who are not so when they are unelected. For proper functioning of the judiciary, it must be independent of any political or executive influence.

The judicial review comes in two forms the strong and the weak. The former has been always the subject of controversy. The latter is the one we are trying to argue whether it can be reconciled to ensure that the principles of democracy are upheld. In our case, stare decisis is not applicable. The courts may not fail to apply a decision just because some rights are going to be violated. Most of the controversy surrounding the two has always revolved around the issue of rights rather than the efficiency of their systems.

Citizens of any country should learn and be willing to create a compromise between the two which is in itself a basic democratic principle. The constitutional review and democracy can be reconciled to ensure that the building block of a democratic government is preserved. It is not so much about the judicial and legislative structure put in place but also by having individuals in the country who are devoted to cultivating the individual rights. This is in itself would provide reconciliation and promote an accurate and functioning democratic community. The weak form of judicial review, in this case, does not take the right to make a decision from the public but will act as a means to enlighten the public on why a certain decision should not be applied. Protecting them from making mistakes in decision making.